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Am J Nurs. 2007 Oct;107(10):40-8; quiz 48-9.

How to try this: Fulmer SPICES.

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College of Nursing at New York University (NYU), New York City, NY, USA.


Fulmer SPICES is a framework for assessing older adults that focuses on six common "marker conditions": sleep problems, problems with eating and feeding, incontinence, confusion, evidence of falls, and skin breakdown. These conditions provide a snapshot of a patient's overall health and the quality of care. The SPICES assessment, done regularly, can signal the need for more specific assessment and lead to the prevention and treatment of these common conditions. For a free online video demonstrating the use of SPICES, go to

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