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J Aerosol Med. 2007 Fall;20(3):352-60.

Increased granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) levels in BAL fluid from patients with sulfur mustard gas-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

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Pulmonary Department Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiran, Islamic Republic of Iran.


The objective of this article was to show the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis due to sulfur mustard gas inhalation. Eighteen veterans with mustard gas-induced pulmonary fibrosis and 18 normal patients were used as controls. Bronchoalveolar larvage (BAL) and analyses of BAL fluids for cellular and cytokine levels were performed. There was a significant difference in granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) level in the BAL fluid of patients and the controls (p < 0.0001). Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating pulmonary fibrosis (GM-CSF) BAL levels were significantly increased in patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in comparison with controls (p < 0.0001). Patients with PF have highly significant increases in IL-8 level compared to controls (87.94 +/- 59.63 vs. 8.66 +/- 6.97 g/mL(1); p < 0.0001) as well. IL-8 and G-CSF levels in BAL fluid correlate only with the percentage and the absolute number of neutrophils of the BAL fluid in patients with PF (p = 0.02/p = 0.01; p = 0.01/p = 0.01; respectively). A significant correlation was found between GM-CSF BAL fluid level and the percentage and the absolute number of the BAL fluid eosinophils (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03). Neutrophils alveolitis, the presence of eosinophils, and higher concentrations of interleukin-8, G-CSF, and GM-CSF in BAL fluid are associated with the development of fibrosis in sulfur mustard victims.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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