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J Aerosol Med. 2007 Fall;20(3):282-93.

Estimating in vivo airway surface liquid concentration in trials of inhaled antibiotics.

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1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Abstract

Antibiotic drugs exhibit concentration dependence in their efficacy. Therefore, ensuring appropriate concentration of these drugs in the relevant body fluid is important for obtaining the desired therapeutic and physiological action. Until recently there had been no suitable method available to measure or estimate concentration of drugs in the human airways resulting from inhaled aerosols or to determine the amount of inhaled antibiotics required to ensure minimum inhibitory concentration of a drug in the airway surface liquid (ASL). In this paper a numerical method is used for estimating local concentration of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols in different generations of the human tracheobronchial airways. The method utilizes a mathematical lung deposition model to estimate amounts of aerosols depositing in different lung generations, and a recent ASL model along with deposition results to assess the concentration of deposited drugs immediately following inhalation. Examples of concentration estimates for two case studies: one for the antibiotic tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and another for taurolidine against Burkholderia cepacia are presented. The aerosol characteristics, breathing pattern and properties of nebulized solutions were adopted from two recent clinical studies on efficacy of these drugs in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and from other sources in the literature. While the clinically effective tobramycin showed a concentration higher than the required in vivo concentration, that for the ineffective taurolidine was found to be below the speculated required in vivo concentration. Results of this study thus show that the mathematical ASL model combined with the lung deposition model can be an effective tool for helping decide the optimum dosage of inhaled antibiotic drugs delivered during human clinical trials.

PMID:
17894535
DOI:
10.1089/jam.2007.0603
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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