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Nat Rev Immunol. 2007 Oct;7(10):803-15.

Evolving functions of endothelial cells in inflammation.

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Interdepartmental Program in Vascular Biology and Therapeutics, Amistad Research Building, Yale University School of Medicine, 10 Amistad Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06509, USA.


Inflammation is usually analysed from the perspective of tissue-infiltrating leukocytes. Microvascular endothelial cells at a site of inflammation are both active participants in and regulators of inflammatory processes. The properties of endothelial cells change during the transition from acute to chronic inflammation and during the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Mediators that act on endothelial cells also act on leukocytes and vice versa. Consequently, many anti-inflammatory therapies influence the behaviour of endothelial cells and vascular therapeutics influence inflammation. This Review describes the functions performed by endothelial cells at each stage of the inflammatory process, emphasizing the principal mediators and signalling pathways involved and the therapeutic implications.

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