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Chemosphere. 2008 Feb;70(10):1845-56. Epub 2007 Sep 24.

Total dissolved and bioavailable elements in water and sediment samples and their accumulation in Oreochromis mossambicus of polluted Manchar Lake.

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  • 1Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh 76080, Pakistan.


The concentrations of 15 elements were determined in water, sediment and tissues of fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from five sampling stations of Manchar Lake in 2005 for two successive seasons, winter (WS) and summer (SS). Elements analysis was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry with flame (FAAS) and electrothermal (ETAAS) modes, using multielement standard solution. The obtained results show that, the trace and toxic elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and macronutrients (Al, Ca, K, Mg and Na) concentrations in lake water were above the recommended drinking water standards by WHO. Concentrations of Na detected in lake water in WS and SS, were in the range of 445.5-562.7 and 420.6-643.5 mgl(-1), respectively. While among toxic elements As concentration in both seasons, have been found in the range of 60.4-88.9 and 64.9-101.8 microgl(-1) respectively, these values are 6-10 times higher than the permissible limit of WHO. The mean concentrations of elements understudy in muscles of fish were found as 2.35, 1.39, 0.46, 2.3, 1517.9, 2.2, 2.4 and 188.9 mgkg(-1) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. High accumulation of toxic elements in fish tissues is indicating that some of the metal contaminants are entering the food chain. Correlations among the variables were identified by multivariate analysis. The extraction of elements from sediments with EDTA, to predict the bioavailability of trace and toxic elements, has shown that among them As, Cd and Zn were the most bioavailable elements in lake sediment.

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