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Transplant Proc. 2007 Sep;39(7):2197-201.

Kidney transplantation in children and adolescents.

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Charité University Hospital, Department of Urology (Campus Mitte), Berlin, Germany.


Worldwide, specific pediatric allocation schemes successfully try to minimize waiting time for children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The article is a review of current issues in pediatric kidney transplantation. The procedure is the treatment of choice for children and adolescents with ESRD, with 1- and 3-year graft survival rates of 95% and 90% and recipient survival after 5 and 10 years of 95% and 90%. Preoperative surgery is often necessary to minimize negative effects of congenital anomalies. No minimum age exists for pediatric transplantation, but most often the recipient body weight is ideally above 10 to 15 kg. Technical concepts should include extravesical anastomosis, stenting of the ureter, and potentially intraperitoneal placement of the graft. Immunosuppression has constantly improved. The aim is a tailored regimen to reduce side effects and improve compliance, which necessitates intense counseling of the child and the parents prior to, during, and after transplantation as many adolescents lose their graft due to noncompliance. Intense follow-up must also exclude infections, especially with herpes and polyoma viruses. For the future, age matching may be only one promising concept to improve results. As only a small number of children require the procedure in each country, multinational studies should be initiated to optimize outcomes in children and adolescents.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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