Send to

Choose Destination
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2007 Dec;8(4):349-63.

Recent advances in diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

Author information

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Christian-Albrechts-Universit├Ąt Kiel, Schwanenweg 20, 24105, Kiel, Germany.


Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is an autosomal-recessive disease causing cortisol deficiency, aldosterone deficiency and hyperandrogenism. Diagnosis of 21-OHD is confirmed by steroid analysis in newborn screening or later on. Standard medical treatment consists of oral glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid administration in order to suppress adrenal androgens and to compensate for adrenal steroid deficiencies. However, available treatment is far from ideal, and not much is known about the long-term outcome in CAH as trials in patients in adulthood or old age are rare. Here we briefly describe the pathophysiology, clinical picture, genetics and epidemiology of 21-OHD. This is followed by a comprehensive review of the recent advances in diagnosis, treatment and outcome. Novel insights have been gained in the fields of newborn screening, specific steroid measurement utilizing mass spectrometry, genetics, glucocorticoid stress dosing, additive medical therapy, prenatal treatment, side-effects of medical treatment, adrenomedullary involvement, metabolic morbidity, fertility and gender identity. However, many issues are still unresolved, and novel questions, which will have to be answered in the future, arise with every new finding.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center