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Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007 Nov;148(3):657-63. Epub 2007 Aug 21.

Anorexigenic effects of central neuropeptide S involve the hypothalamus in chicks (Gallus gallus).

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Department of Biology P.O. Box 6931, Radford University, Radford, Virginia 24142, USA.


Neuropeptide S (NPS) affects appetite-related processes in mammals. However, its role in avian biology is unreported. We hypothesized that intracerebroventricular (ICV) NPS would cause anorexigenic effects in chicks (Gallus gallus). To evaluate this, Cobb-500 chicks were centrally injected with multiple doses (0, 0.313, 0.625 and 1.250 mug) of NPS. NPS-treated chicks responded with decreased feed and water intake. The effect on water intake was secondary to feed intake, because fasted NPS-treated chicks did not reduce water intake. ICV NPS injection also reduced plasma corticosterone concentration. We monitored behavior and found decreased ingestive and exploratory pecking, jumping, locomotion, and increased time spent in deep rest. We hypothesized that the anorexigenic effects were hypothalamic in origin and quantified c-Fos reactivity in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) after NPS treatment. NPS was associated with decreased c-Fos reactivity in the LH, increased reactivity in the PVN and had no effect in the VMH. When NPS was injected directly into the LH and PVN, chicks responded with decreased feed and water intake, suggesting that effects were directly mediated by these nuclei. We conclude that ICV NPS causes anorexigenic effects in chicks, without directly affecting water intake, and the hypothalamus is involved.

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