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Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Jan 1;167(1):86-9. Epub 2007 Sep 19.

Simple formulas for gauging the potential impacts of population stratification bias.

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Research Center for Genes, Environment and Human Health and the Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.


The case-control study design is popular for genetic association studies of complex human diseases. However, case-control studies may suffer from bias due to population stratification. In this paper, the authors present simple formulas that can set a limit to the havoc population stratification bias can wreak (the lower and upper bounds of the confounding rate ratio and the upper bound of the type I error rate). The authors demonstrate applications of these formulas using two examples. The formulas can help researchers make more prudent interpretations of their (potentially biased) results.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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