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Arch Oral Biol. 2008 Jan;53(1):44-52. Epub 2007 Sep 18.

Superoxide dismutase activity in gingiva in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients with chronic periodontitis.

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  • 1Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.



Antioxidant defence reduces in diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis. This study investigates antioxidant enzyme; superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in gingiva and blood glucose and lipid levels in type-2 DM patients and systemically healthy individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP).


Periodontal parameters, blood glycated-haemoglobin (HbA1c), glucose and lipid levels, and gingival-SOD activities (spectrophotometric assay) were measured in 17 DM patients with CP (DMCP), 17 systemically healthy CP patients, 18 periodontally healthy DM patients (DMPH), and 17 healthy controls (PH).


Periodontal parameters were higher in periodontitis groups than the controls (p<0.05), while there was no difference between the periodontitis groups and between the control groups. HbA1c, glucose, and triglyceride levels were higher in diabetic groups than the non-diabetic groups (p<0.05). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-LDL and cholesterol values of the DMCP group did not significantly differ from the CP group. No differences existed between diabetic patients with and without periodontitis in HbA1c, glucose, and lipid levels and the same was true for non-diabetic patients with and without periodontitis. Gingival-SOD activity was lower in periodontitis groups than the matched control groups (p<0.05). DMPH group had the highest and CP group had the lowest SOD levels. There were correlations between periodontal parameters, gingival-SOD activity, HbA1c, glucose and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.


The results suggest that gingival-SOD activity increases in diabetes and decreases in periodontitis and relations may exist between gingival-SOD activity, periodontal status, HbA1c, glucose and HDL levels. The higher gingival-SOD activity in diabetes may be attributed to an adaptive mechanism in the tissue.

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