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Clin Cardiol. 2007 Oct;30(10):491-5.

A systematic review of gender differences in mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and percutaneous coronary interventions.

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Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.


Gender differences exist in outcomes, particularly early mortality, for percutaneous interventions (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Better understanding of this issue may target areas for improvement for all patients undergoing revascularization. Therefore, we summarized the evidence on gender differences in PCI and CABG outcomes, particularly early mortality, and mediators of this difference. Using the key terms "women" or "gender," "revascularization," "coronary artery bypass," "angioplasty," "stent," and "coronary intervention," we searched MEDLINE from 1985 to 2005 for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and registries reporting outcomes by gender. Bibliographies and the Web sites of cardiology conferences were also reviewed. The literature was examined to identify gender differences in outcomes and mediators of these differences. We identified 23 studies reporting outcomes by gender for CABG and 48 studies reporting outcomes by gender for PCI. The majority of studies noted greater in-hospital mortality in women than in men, with mortality differences resolving with longer follow-up. Early mortality differences were reduced but not consistently eliminated after adjustment for comorbidities, procedural characteristics, and body habitus. Power to detect gender differences after multivariate adjustment was limited by declining mortality rates and small sample size. Gender was an independent risk factor for complications after both CABG and PCI. Women experience greater complications and early mortality after revascularization. Future exploration is needed of gender differences in quality of care and benefit from combinations of stenting and antiplatelet, and anticoagulant medications in order to optimize treatment.

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