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J Intern Med. 2007 Oct;262(4):439-48.

The effect of baseline physical activity on cardiovascular outcomes and new-onset diabetes in patients treated for hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study.

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Ullevaal University Hospital, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.



Physical activity (PA) is a preventive strategy for cardiovascular disease and for managing cardiovascular risk factors. There is little information on the effectiveness of PA for the prevention of cardiovascular outcomes once cardiovascular disease is present. Thus, we studied the relationship between PA at baseline and cardiovascular events in a high-risk population.


A prespecified analyses of observational data in a prospective, randomized hypertension study.


Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study.


Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (n = 9,193).


Losartan versus atenolol.


Reported level of PA: never exercise, exercise <or=30 min twice per week, or exercise >30 min twice per week at baseline and after a mean of 4.8 years of treatment with losartan- versus atenolol-based therapy. Risk reductions were calculated by level of PA for the primary composite end-point and its components cardiovascular death, stroke and myocardial infarction, and also all-cause mortality and new-onset diabetes.


A modest level of PA (>30 min twice per week) was associated with significant reductions in risk for the primary composite end-point [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.70, P < 0.001) and its components, all-cause mortality (aHR 0.65, P < 0.001), and new-onset diabetes (aHR 0.66, P < 0.001).


A modest level of self-reported PA (>30 min twice per week) in patients with hypertension and LVH in the LIFE study was associated with significant reductions in risk for the primary composite end-point and its components of cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction, all-cause mortality, and new-onset diabetes.

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