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Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2007 Aug;28(4):317-28.

Testicular torsion: twists and turns.

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Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY, USA.


Testicular torsion is one of the common causes of acute scrotal pain. This review discusses the clinical and sonographic findings of intravaginal and extravaginal testicular torsion, including the normal sonographic and vascular anatomy of the testis. The role of color flow Doppler and spectral Doppler is also emphasized in the patient's complete, incomplete, and intermittent testicular torsion. Sonographic features of testicular torsion mimics, such as vasculitis, venous thrombosis, scrotal edema, and technical parameters, are also presented. A brief description of new developments such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound, dynamic contrast magnetic resonance imaging, and near-infrared imaging is included.

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