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Biosens Bioelectron. 2007 Dec 15;23(5):688-94. Epub 2007 Aug 10.

Detecting penicillin G in milk with impedimetric label-free immunosensor.

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Biophysics Research Unit: Biosensors and Biocurrents, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand.


A label-free impedimetric flow injection immunosensor for the direct detection of penicillin G has been developed. Anti-penicillin G was immobilized on a gold working electrode modified with a self-assembled monolayer of thioctic acid. Real time monitoring of impedance was carried out at the optimum frequency of 160 Hz. Under optimum operating conditions the system provided a wide linear range between 1.0 x 10(-13) and 1.0 x 10(-8) M with a very low detection limit of 3.0 x 10(-15) M, much lower than the MRL of penicillin G in milk (1.2 x 10(-8) M). The immobilized anti-penicillin G on self-assembled thioctic acid monolayer gold electrode was very stable and provided good reproducible signal after regeneration up to 45 times with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) lower than 4%. Good recoveries and precisions were obtained when spiked raw milk samples were analyzed.

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