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BMC Plant Biol. 2007 Sep 14;7:47.

Tagging of MADS domain proteins for chromatin immunoprecipitation.

Author information

1
Business Unit Bioscience, Plant Research International, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. sdfolter@ira.cinvestav.mx

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Most transcription factors fulfill their role in complexes and regulate their target genes upon binding to DNA motifs located in upstream regions or introns. To date, knowledge about transcription factor target genes and their corresponding transcription factor binding sites are still very limited. Two related methods that allow in vivo identification of transcription factor binding sites are chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and chromatin affinity purification (ChAP). For ChAP, the protein of interest is tagged with a peptide or protein, which can be used for affinity purification of the protein-DNA complex and hence, the identification of the target gene.

RESULTS:

Here, we present the results of experiments aiming at the development of a generic tagging approach for the Arabidopsis MADS domain proteins AGAMOUS, SEPALLATA3, and FRUITFULL. For this, Arabidopsis wild type plants were transformed with constructs containing a MADS-box gene fused to either a double Strep-tag II-FLAG-tag, a triple HA-tag, or an eGFP-tag, all under the control of the constitutive double 35S Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) promoter. Strikingly, in all cases, the number of transformants with loss-of-function phenotypes was much larger than those with an overexpression phenotype. Using endogenous promoters in stead of the 35S CaMV resulted in a dramatic reduction in the frequency of loss-of-function phenotypes. Furthermore, pleiotropic defects occasionally caused by an overexpression strategy can be overcome by using the native promoter of the gene. Finally, a ChAP result is presented using GFP antibody on plants carrying a genomic fragment of a MADS-box gene fused to GFP.

CONCLUSION:

This study revealed that MADS-box proteins are very sensitive to fusions with small peptide tags and GFP tags. Furthermore, for the expression of chimeric versions of MADS-box genes it is favorable to use the entire genomic region in frame to the tag of choice. Interestingly, though unexpected, it appears that the use of chimeric versions of MADS-box genes under the control of the strong 35S CaMV promoter is a very efficient method to obtain dominant-negative mutants, either caused by cosuppression or by alteration of the activity of the recombinant protein. Finally, we were able to demonstrate AGAMOUS binding to one of its targets by ChAP.

PMID:
17868439
PMCID:
PMC2071916
DOI:
10.1186/1471-2229-7-47
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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