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J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2008 Jan;30(1):83-90. Epub 2007 Apr 20.

Predictive validity of demographically adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale.

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Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego State University and University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92103, USA.


The aim of the current study was to develop and validate demographically adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). Given the association between demographic variables and the HDS summary score, demographically adjusted normative standards may enhance the classification accuracy of the HDS. Demographically adjusted normative standards were derived from a sample of 182 seronegative healthy participants and were subsequently applied to a sample of 135 HIV-1 seropositive individuals with multidisciplinary case conference diagnoses of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (e.g., HIV-1-associated dementia and minor-cognitive/motor disorder) in proportions consistent with published epidemiologic reports. In the normative sample, age and education (and their interaction) emerged as the only demographic factors significantly associated with the HDS. In comparison to the traditional HDS cut score (raw score total <or=10), use of the demographically adjusted normative standards significantly improved the sensitivity (from 17.2% to 70.7%, respectively) and overall classification accuracy (increasing the odds ratio from 3 to approximately 6) of the HDS for identifying participants with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. The application of demographically adjusted normative standards on the HDS improves the clinical applicability and accuracy of this cognitive screening measure in the detection of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.

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