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Hematology. 2007 Dec;12(6):561-70.

Alterations of hemostasis after laparoscopic and open surgery.

Author information

  • 11st Department of Surgery, Athens Medical School, Laiko University Hospital, Athens, Greece. nikots@otenet.gr

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

After tissue injury caused by trauma or surgery, alterations of hemostasis are observed and there is a risk for postoperative thromboembolic complications. Laparoscopic surgery, by causing limited tissue injury, appears to be associated with a lower risk for thromboembolism than open surgery. We conducted a prospective randomized study in order to detect potentially existing differences in activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways between open and laparoscopic surgery.

METHODS:

Forty patients suffering from chronic cholelithiasis were randomly assigned to undergo open (group A n = 20) or laparoscopic cholecystectomy (group B n = 20) by the same surgical and anesthesiology team. Demographic data were comparable. Blood samples were taken (a) preoperatively, (b) at the end of the procedure, (c) 24 h postoperatively and (d) 72 h postoperatively. The following parameters were measured and compared within each group and between groups: platelets (PLT), soluble fibrin monomer complexes (SFMC), fibrin degradation products (FDP), D-dimers (D-D), fibrinogen (FIB), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT). Thrombin-antithrombin III complexes (TAT) were measured at 24 and 72 h postoperatively. Prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) was measured at 24 and 72 h postoperatively in 11 patients of group A and 13 patients of group B, respectively.

RESULTS:

Demographics were comparable between groups. Immediately postoperatively, TAT and F1 + 2 were significantly higher in group A as compared to group B (p < 0.05). They also increased significantly postoperatively as compared to preoperative levels within each group (p < 0.05). D-dimers were significantly higher in group A as compared to group B (p < 0.01) immediately postoperatively. D-dimers also increased significantly postoperatively in group B as compared to preoperative levels (p < 0.001). FIB decreased slightly in both groups at 24 h postoperatively but there was a significant increase in group A as compared to group B (p < 0.01). SFMC were detected twice in group A and only once group B. FDP levels over 5 mug/ml were detected more often in group A than in group B (p < 0.05). No patient from either group suffered thromboembolism or abnormal bleeding as a postoperative complication.

CONCLUSIONS:

Open surgery as compared to laparoscopic procedures leads to activation of the clotting system of a higher degree. Although of a lower degree, hypercoagulability is still observed in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery and, therefore, routine thromboembolic prophylaxis should be considered.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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