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Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;145(2):163-74. Epub 2007 Sep 11.

Ligation of Toll-like receptor 3 differentially regulates M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor expression and function in human airway smooth muscle cells.

Author information

1
Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization, Sagamihara Hospital, Sagamihara, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Viral infection causes asthma exacerbations and airway hyperreactivity. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of viral or synthetic origin in a fashion different from protein kinase R (PKR). The aim of this study was to examine the expression and function of TLR3 in human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells.

METHODS:

Expression of TLR3 and muscarinic receptor (MR), histamine receptor (HR), and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLTR) subtypes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, flow cytometry, or Western blotting. It was assessed whether ASM cells respond to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic analog of dsRNA, with alterations in M2R, M3R, H1R, and CysLT1R expression. The function of these subtypes was evaluated by cholinergic regulation of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation or by mobilization of intracellular calcium upon stimulation.

RESULTS:

ASM cells expressed TLR3 and PKR, and intracellular TLR3 expression was demonstrated. Poly I:C caused decreased M2R and increased M3R expression, without affecting H1R and CysLT1R expression. Poly I:C-treated cells showed decreased cholinergic inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and enhanced calcium flux in response to acetylcholine, but not to histamine and LTD4. These modulating effects of poly I:C were reversed by chloroquine, but not by 2-aminopurine.

CONCLUSIONS:

The data indicate that poly I:C internalized by ASM cells differentially regulates M2R and M3R expression and function by interacting with TLR3 rather than with PKR, suggesting that these changes may contribute to airway hyperreactivity.

PMID:
17851256
DOI:
10.1159/000108141
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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