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Brain Res. 2007 Oct 12;1174:7-17. Epub 2007 Aug 2.

The expression of Troponin T1 gene is induced by ketamine in adult mouse brain.

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Life Science, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.


The glutamatergic system has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease, which also have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Treatment with ketamine, a non-competitive glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is known to have paradoxical effects of neuroprotection and neurotoxicity. We investigated gene expression in brain tissue of adult mice treated with ketamine to characterize the expression profiles and to identify the affected metabolic pathways. Adult male mice were treated by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either s(+)ketamine (80 mg/kg) or distilled water (as the control). Fifty genes were differentially expressed in ketamine-treated mouse brains compared with control mice using oligonucleotide microarray analysis, and the expression of Troponin T1 (Tnnt1) gene was consistently elevated (2- to 4-fold) (p<0.001). Ketamine-induced Tnnt1 expression was confirmed and characterized using RNA in situ hybridization techniques in paraffin embedded brain tissue sections. Tnnt1 expression was induced in the granule layer of the hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, Purkinje cells of cerebellum (p<0.0001), and cerebral cortex. Tnnt1 gene is known to interact directly with FoxO1, which is involved in multiple peripheral metabolic pathways and central energy homeostasis. Our findings suggest that the induction of Tnnt1 gene expression in adult mouse brains by ketamine may illustrate the genes involved in the metabolic syndromes observed in neuropsychiatric disorders.

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