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Science. 1984 Jun 22;224(4655):1336-8.

Community recovery after storm damage: a case of facilitation in primary succession.

Abstract

Manipulations of early arriving, fast-growing algal stands, which appeared soon after a severe storm denuded a Southern California marine reef habiatat, indicated that the dense cover protected newly settled kelp plants from excessive damage by grazing fishes. This is an example of refuge facilitation in primary succession after a major natural disturbance, a mechanism that may contribute substantially to the regeneration of a kelp forest.

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