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J Hum Genet. 2007;52(10):804-19. Epub 2007 Sep 9.

Genetic variations and haplotype structures of the DPYD gene encoding dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in Japanese and their ethnic differences.

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Division of Biochemistry and Immunochemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 158-8501, Japan.


Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is an inactivating and rate-limiting enzyme for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and its deficiency is associated with a risk for developing a severe or fatal toxicity to 5-FU. In this study, to search for genetic variations of DPYD encoding DPD in Japanese, the putative promoter region, all exons, and flanking introns of DPYD were sequenced from 341 subjects including cancer patients treated with 5-FU. Fifty-five genetic variations, including 38 novel ones, were found and consisted of 4 in the 5'-flanking region, 21 (5 synonymous and 16 nonsynonymous) in the coding exons, and 30 in the introns. Nine novel nonsynonymous SNPs, 29C>A (Ala10Glu), 325T>A (Tyr109Asn), 451A>G (Asn151Asp), 733A>T (Ile245Phe), 793G>A (Glu265Lys), 1543G>A (Val515Ile), 1572T>G (Phe524Leu), 1666A>C (Ser556Arg), and 2678A>G (Asn893Ser), were found at allele frequencies between 0.15 and 0.88%. Two known nonsynonymous variations reported only in Japanese, 1003G>T (*11, Val335Leu) and 2303C>A (Thr768Lys), were found at allele frequencies of 0.15 and 2.8%, respectively. SNP and haplotype distributions in Japanese were quite different from those reported previously in Caucasians. This study provides fundamental information for pharmacogenetic studies for evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of 5-FU in Japanese and probably East Asians.

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