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Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1991 Aug;69(8):1222-9.

Early adaptations in blood substrates, metabolites, and hormones to prolonged exercise training in man.

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Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Ont., Canada.


This study was designed to investigate the effect of short-term, submaximal training on changes in blood substrates, metabolites, and hormonal concentrations during prolonged exercise at the same power output. Cycle training was performed daily by eight male subjects (VO2max = 53.0 +/- 2.0, mean +/- SE) for 10-12 days with each exercise session lasting for 2 h at an average intensity of 59% of VO2max. This training protocol resulted in reductions (p less than 0.05) in blood lactate concentration (mM) at 15 min (2.96 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.23), 30 min (2.92 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.70 +/- 0.22), 60 min (2.96 +/- 0.53 vs. 1.72 +/- 0.29), and 90 min (2.58 +/- 1.3 vs. 1.62 +/- 0.23) of exercise. The reduction in blood lactate was also accompanied by lower (p less than 0.05) concentrations of both ammonia and uric acid. Similarly, following training lower concentrations (p less than 0.05) were observed for blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (60 and 90 min) and serum free fatty acids (90 min). Blood glucose (15 and 30 min) and blood glycerol (30 and 60 min) were higher (p less than 0.05) following training, whereas blood alanine and pyruvate were unaffected. For the hormones insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, only epinephrine and norepinephrine were altered with training. For both of the catecholamines, the exercise-induced increase was blunted (p less than 0.05) at both 60 and 90 min. As indicated by the changes in blood lactate, ammonia, and uric acid, a depression in glycolysis and IMP formation is suggested as an early adaptive response to prolonged submaximal exercise training.

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