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Science. 1985 Apr 5;228(4695):69-70.

Around-the-World Relativistic Sagnac Experiment.

Abstract

In 1971 Hafele and Keating carried portable atomic clocks east and then west around the world and verified the Sagnac effect, a special relativity effect attributable to the earth's rotation. In the study reported here observations of the effect were made by using electromagnetic signals instead of portable clocks to make clock comparisons. Global Positioning System satellites transmit signals that can be viewed simultaneously from remote stations on the earth; thus an around-the-world Sagnac experiment can be performed with electromagnetic signals. The effect is larger than that occurring when portable clocks are used. The average error over a 3-month experiment was only 5 nanoseconds.

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