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Science. 1979 Oct 12;206(4415):217-8.

Size of the permo-triassic bottleneck and its evolutionary implications.


Rarefaction analysis of extinctions in the Late Permian indicates that as many as 96 percent of all marine species may have died out, thus forcing the marine biosphere to pass through a small bottleneck. With such severity of extinction, chance elimination of certain biologic groups would have been probable. Some of the changes in biologic composition observed at the Permo-Triassic boundary may be explained as an evolutionary founder effect that followed the bottleneck.

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