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Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Mar;83(3):401-12. Epub 2007 Oct 5.

Male genital tract pharmacology: developments in quantitative methods to better understand a complex peripheral compartment.

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Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


A substantial health burden results from medical problems affecting the male genital tract, including chronic morbidity conditions affecting a large proportion of men, such as benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostatitis, and potentially lethal conditions, such as prostate cancer and human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Rational approaches to therapeutics in these conditions should benefit from understanding local pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of active drugs within the male genital tract. However, the description of drug distribution into the male genital tract has been largely limited to total, rather than protein-free drug concentrations in the whole ejaculate at one or two time points within a dosing interval, which may be misleading in understanding local drug action. Recent innovations enable a quantitative understanding of protein-free drug kinetics into semen and drug distribution into individual male genital tract glands. These methods may benefit therapeutics through optimization of targeted drug delivery and facilitate drug development for diseases related to these glands.

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