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J Immunol. 2007 Sep 15;179(6):4065-73.

Metalloproteinases shed TREM-1 ectodomain from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes.

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Research Unit, La Paz Hospital, Madrid, Spain.


Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cell (TREM) proteins are a family of cell surface receptors that participate in diverse cellular processes such as inflammation, coagulation, and bone homeostasis. TREM-1, in particular, is expressed on neutrophils and monocytes and is a potent amplifier of inflammatory responses. LPS and other microbial products induce up-regulation of cell surface-localized TREM-1 and the release of its soluble form, sTREM-1. Two hypotheses have been advanced to explain the origin of sTREM-1: alternative splicing of TREM-1 mRNA and proteolytic cleavage(s) of mature, membrane-anchored TREM-1. In this report, we present conclusive evidence in favor of the proteolytic mechanism of sTREM-1 generation. No alternative splicing forms of TREM-1 were detected in monocytes/macrophages. Besides, metalloproteinase inhibitors increased the stability of TREM-1 at the cell surface while significantly reducing sTREM-1 release in cultures of LPS-challenged human monocytes and neutrophils. We conclude that metalloproteinases are responsible for shedding of the TREM-1 ectodomain through proteolytic cleavage of its long juxtamembrane linker.

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