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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Aug;1109:58-65.

Role of Toll-like receptors in HMGB1 release from macrophages.

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  • 1Medical Research Service, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA.


HMGB1 is a nonhistone nuclear protein that can serve as a cytokine and activate innate immunity. The translocation of this molecule from the inside to the outside of cells is a critical event in inflammation, occurring following activation of certain Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as well as during the course of apoptotic as well as necrotic cell death. Because the kinetics of HMGB1 release differs from that of a conventional cytokine, it provides a broader therapeutic window and may be an important new target of therapy for inflammatory, autoimmune, and infectious diseases.

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