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Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Sep 15;26(6):859-67.

Development of a clinical hepatic encephalopathy staging scale.

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1
Servei de Medicina Interna-Hepatologia, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

AIM:

To develop a scale to assess the severity of hepatic encephalopathy using simple dichotomic items.

METHODS:

A list of 48 items was created by selecting items that are simple to recognize and categorize; it was applied to thirty-six cirrhotic in-patients with episodic encephalopathy, in addition to the adapted-West-Haven Criteria and the Glasgow Coma Score. The list underwent an item reduction process and principal component analysis; the metric characteristics were evaluated.

RESULTS:

Multiple neurological abnormalities were observed and a Clinical Hepatic Encephalopathy Staging Scale of nine items was constructed. The principal component analysis of the Clinical Hepatic Encephalopathy Staging Scale obtained two factors that explained 77% of the variance. The Clinical Hepatic Encephalopathy Staging Scale exhibited adequate internal consistency and reproducibility. The scores of the Clinical Hepatic Encephalopathy Staging Scale correlated to those of adapted-West-Haven Criteria and the Glasgow Coma Score.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study confirms that the evaluation of multiple neurological manifestations is not necessary to classify hepatic encephalopathy adequately, which can be simply undertaken by an assessment of the patient's orientation, alertness, ability to respond to commands and to talk. A list of nine items is proposed as a linear scale from normality (Clinical Hepatic Encephalopathy Staging Scale = 0) to deep coma (Clinical Hepatic Encephalopathy Staging Scale = 9).

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