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Brain Inj. 2007 Aug;21(9):933-42.

Community integration, social support and life satisfaction in relation to symptoms 3 years after mild traumatic brain injury.

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Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Sweden.



To investigate the relation between psychosocial functioning (community integration, life satisfaction and social support) and symptoms (post-concussion, post-traumatic stress and depression) in persons with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) 3 years after the trauma.


Population-based follow-up study of 163 patients. At follow-up, an assessment of community integration, social support, life satisfaction and symptoms was made.


Total score of Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was negatively correlated to total score of the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ, r = -0.270, p < 0.001) and to total score of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, r = -0.332, p < 0.001). Life satisfaction (LiSat-11) was negatively correlated to the RPQ (r = -0.459, p < 0.001), to total score of the Impact of Event Scale (IES, r = -0.365, p < 0.001) and to the BDI (r = -0.642, p < 0.001). Low levels of life satisfaction were common at follow-up.


A large proportion of the individuals with MTBI experienced both psychosocial difficulties, with low levels of life satisfaction in particular and symptoms (post-concussion, post-traumatic stress and depression) 3 years after trauma. Since the possibility of pre-injury factors contributing to the condition at follow-up cannot be ruled out, the study indicates that all these factors should be taken into consideration in the management of persons with MTBI.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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