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J Neurosci. 2007 Aug 29;27(35):9301-9.

Chronic interleukin-1beta expression in mouse brain leads to leukocyte infiltration and neutrophil-independent blood brain barrier permeability without overt neurodegeneration.

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Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.


The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) plays a significant role in leukocyte recruitment to the CNS. Although acute effects of IL-1beta signaling in the mouse brain have been well described, studies elucidating the downstream effects of sustained upregulation have been lacking. Using the recently described IL-1beta(XAT) transgenic mouse model, we triggered sustained unilateral hippocampal overexpression of IL-1beta. Transgene induction led to blood-brain barrier leakage, induction of MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) (CCL2), ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), and dramatic infiltration of CD45-positive leukocytes comprised of neutrophils, T-cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Despite prolonged cellular infiltration of the hippocampus, there was no evidence of neuronal degeneration. Surprisingly, neutrophils were observed in the hippocampal parenchyma as late as 1 year after transgene induction. Their presence was coincident with upregulation of the potent neutrophil chemotactic chemokines KC (keratinocyte-derived chemokine) (CXCL1) and MIP-2 (macrophage inflammatory protein 2) (CXCL2). Knock-out of their sole receptor CXCR2 abrogated neutrophil infiltration but failed to reduce leakage of the blood-brain barrier.

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