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Diabet Med. 2007 Nov;24(11):1229-34. Epub 2007 Aug 24.

Associations of Type 1 diabetes mellitus, maternal vascular disease and complications of pregnancy.

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1
Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Maternal diabetes increases the risk of pre-eclampsia and abnormalities of fetal growth. We studied the additional impact of maternal vascular disease on these risks.

METHODS:

The first viable (> 23 weeks) pregnancies of 138 women with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM), delivered between 1994 and 2003 at the Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK were studied. Women were divided into groups with and without vascular disease (retinopathy and/or nephropathy and/or pre-existing hypertension). Primary outcomes were pre-eclampsia and fetal customized birthweight percentile (cbp) (adjusted for maternal weight, height, parity, ethnicity, gestational age and gender). Secondary outcomes were perinatal outcome (miscarriage, intrauterine or neonatal death), preterm birth, birth asphyxia, neonatal hypoglycaemia and delivery mode.

RESULTS:

Women with vascular disease were more likely to develop pre-eclampsia (OR 3.5; CI 1.28-9.53) and deliver infants with lower cbp (median 89.0, range 0-100 vs. 98.0, range 0-100; P < or = 0.005). Infants were less likely to be macrosomic (OR 0.46; CI 0.224-0.928) but more likely to have intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR; OR 6.0; CI 1.54-23.33). Women with vascular disease had higher Caesarean section rates (90 vs. 56%, P < or = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:

Women with Type 1 DM and vascular disease are at greater risk of pre-eclampsia and pathological fetal growth. This should influence counselling and merit increased pregnancy surveillance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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