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AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Aug;23(8):1055-61.

Drug resistance in plasma and breast milk after single-dose nevirapine in subtype C HIV type 1: population and clonal sequence analysis.

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Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.


Single-dose nevirapine (SD NVP) reduces intrapartum HIV-1 transmission, but nonnucleoside reverse transcription (NNRTI) resistance mutations can emerge. Population sequencing among 32 subtype C HIV-1-infected, SD NVP-exposed Zimbawean women demonstrated NNRTI resistance in 25/32 (78%) women: 23/30 (77%) at 2 weeks, 11/31 (35%) at 8 weeks, and 5/27 (19%) at 24 weeks. A total of 447 unique TA clones (median = 28 per time point), from four women with resistance at 8 weeks but wild-type virus by population sequence at 24 weeks, identified NNRTI mutations in a median of 76% (range: 55-96%) of individual clones at 2 weeks, 48% (range: 33-80%) at 8 weeks, and 5% (range: 0-15%) by 24 weeks. NNRTI mutations in breast milk clones at 2 and weeks from one woman varied significantly from plasma. Population sequencing underestimates the diversity of NNRTI resistance mutations within minority populations following SD NVP in subtype C HIV-1 viral RNA in plasma and breast milk.

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