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Anal Chim Acta. 2006 Oct 10;579(2):158-76. Epub 2006 Jul 22.

Proteomic profiling of human urinary proteome using nano-high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

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Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Road, Tainan, Taiwan.


Urine, a blood filtrate produced by the urinary system, is an ideal bio-sample and a rich source of biomarkers for diagnostic information. Many components in urine are useful in clinical diagnosis, and urinary proteins can be strong indication for many diseases such as proteinuria, kidney, bladder and urinary tract diseases. To enhance our understanding of urinary proteome, the urine proteins were prepared by different sample cleanup preparation methods and identified by nano-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry followed by peptide fragmentation pattern. The experimental results demonstrated that a total of 2283 peptides, corresponding to 311 unique proteins, were identified from human urine samples, in which 104 proteins with higher confidence levels. The present study was designed to establish optimal techniques to create a proteomic map of normal urinary proteins. Also, a discussion of novel approaches to urine protein cleanup and constituents is given.


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