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J Trauma Stress. 2007 Aug;20(4):505-15.

Stigma and the military: evaluation of a PTSD psychoeducational program.

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  • 1Department of Clinical Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK.


Trauma risk management (TRiM) is an intensive posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) psychoeducational management strategy based on peer-group risk assessment developed by the UK Royal Navy (RN). TRiM seeks to modify attitudes about PTSD, stress, and help-seeking and trains military personnel to identify at-risk individuals and refer them for early intervention. This quasiexperimental study found that TRiM training significantly improved attitudes about PTSD, stress, and help-seeking from TRiM-trained personnel. There was a nonsignificant effect on attitudes to seeking help from normal military support networks and on general health. Within both the military and civilian populations, stigma is a serious issue preventing help-seeking and reducing quality of life. The results suggest that TRiM is a promising antistigma program within organizational settings.

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