Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
AIDS. 2007 Sep 12;21(14):1957-63.

Risk of cancers during interrupted antiretroviral therapy in the SMART study.

Author information

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California 94110, USA.



To compare rates of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies between patients on a CD4 T-cell-guided antiretroviral therapy (ART) strategy and continuous ART.


A randomized clinical trial.


Malignancy rates were compared between the drug conservation arm in which ART was stopped if the CD4 T-cell count exceeded 350 cells/microl and (re)started if it fell to less than 250 cells/microl and the viral suppression arm utilizing continuous ART. Cox models were used to examine baseline characteristics including age, sex, race, cigarette use, previous malignancies, CD4 T-cell and HIV-RNA levels, hepatitis B or C, and ART duration.


A total of 5472 participants were randomly assigned to treatment groups, of whom 70 developed cancer: 13 AIDS-defining malignancies and 58 non-AIDS-defining malignancies (one patient had both). The AIDS-defining malignancy rate per 1000 person-years was higher in the drug conservation arm (3.0 versus 0.5). Proximal CD4 T-cell and HIV RNA levels mediated much of this increased risk. The drug conservation arm also had higher rates of Kaposi's sarcoma (1.9 versus 0.3) and lymphoma (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's; 1.1 versus 0.3). The non-AIDS-defining malignancy rate was similar between the drug conservation and viral suppression arms (8.8 versus 7.1). The most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies were skin (n = 16), lung (n = 8) and prostate (n = 6) cancers.


Non-AIDS-defining malignancies were more common in this cohort than AIDS-defining malignancies. This analysis provides further evidence against the use of CD4 T-cell-guided ART because of a higher risk of AIDS-defining malignancies in addition to opportunistic infections and deaths.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    Loading ...
    Support Center