Send to

Choose Destination
Top HIV Med. 2007 Aug-Sep;15(4):114-7.

HIV disease progression: immune activation, microbes, and a leaky gut.

Author information

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.


Recent findings indicate that the majority of all CD4+ T lymphocytes are lost during acute HIV infection, with mucosal compartments being most severely affected. The frequency of infection is very high in gut CD4+ T cells, and depletion of these cells persists into the chronic phase of infection. Infection is associated with increased gut permeability, with microbial translocation being evidenced by increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. Plasma LPS levels correlate with systemic immune activation, which drives chronic HIV infection. Antiretroviral therapy reduces plasma LPS, and greater CD4+ T cell reconstitution is associated with lower LPS levels. These findings have a number of implications for therapeutic strategies. This article summarizes a presentation on HIV disease progression made by Daniel Douek, MD, PhD, at an International AIDS Society-USA Continuing Medical Education course in San Francisco in May 2007. The original presentation is available as a Webcast at

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for IAS-USA
Loading ...
Support Center