Send to

Choose Destination
Behav Processes. 2008 Mar;77(3):313-9. Epub 2007 Jul 21.

Behavioural and endocrine fear responses in Japanese quail upon presentation of a novel object in the home cage.

Author information

Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, UMR85 INRA-CNRS-Université de Tours-Haras Nationaux, 37 380 Nouzilly, France.


Most tests used to study fear in birds involve transferring them to a novel environment, which constitutes a bias in studies aiming at identifying the neural correlates of a specific fear-inducing situation. In order to investigate fear in birds with minimum interference by humans, behavioural and endocrine responses to the presentation of a novel object in the home cage were investigated in two lines of Japanese quail divergently selected for long or short duration of tonic immobility, a behavioural index of fear. Presentation of the novel object induced typical fear responses (avoidance of the object, increased pacing and increased plasma corticosterone levels) that were similar in the two lines of quail. Presentation of a novel object in the home cage thus appears to be a suitable stimulus to induce fear reactions in quail, with minimum interference from other motivational systems. The fact that quail of both lines reacted similarly in this test, while they are known to differ greatly in their behavioural responses to other fear-inducing tests, illustrates the multidimensional nature of fear.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center