Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eur Urol. 2007 Nov;52(5):1309-22. Epub 2007 Aug 17.

Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature.

Author information

Department of Urology, University Vita-Salute, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.



To review and critically analyse all the recent literature on the detection and characterisation of prostate cancer by means of extended and saturation protocols.


A systematic review of the literature was performed by searching MedLine from January 1995 to April 2007. Electronic searches were limited to the English language, and the key words "prostate cancer," "diagnosis," "transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)," "prostate biopsy," and "prognosis" were used.


The prostate biopsy technique has changed significantly since the original Hodge sextant biopsy protocol. Several types of local anaesthesia are now available, but periprostatic nerve block (PPNB) has proved to be the most effective method to reduce pain during TRUS biopsy. It remains controversial whether PPNB should be associated with other medications. The optimal extended protocol (sextant template with at least four additional cores) should include six standard sextant biopsies, with additional biopsies (up to 12 cores) taken more laterally (anterior horn) to the base and medially to the apex. Repeat biopsies should be based on saturation biopsies (number of cores >/= 20) and should include the transition zone, especially in a patient with an initial negative biopsy. As a means of increasing accuracy of prostatic biopsy and reducing unnecessary prostate biopsy, colour and power Doppler imaging, with or without contrast enhancement, and elastography now can be successfully adopted, but their routine use is still controversial.


Extended and saturation biopsy schemes should be performed at first and repeat biopsy, respectively. The widespread use of local anaesthesia makes the procedures more comfortable.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center