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Toxicology. 2007 Oct 30;240(1-2):60-9. Epub 2007 Aug 1.

Elevated levels of MCP-1, MIP-alpha and MIP-1 beta in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with mustard gas-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Diseases, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.



Role of chemokines in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis (PF) due to sulfur mustard (SM) gas inhalation.


18 veterans with SM gas-induced PF, 15 patients with IPF and 18 normal as controls.


Chest roentgenograms, PFTs, the percentage DLCO, high-resolution CT scans of the chest, and analyses of BAL fluids for chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta) were performed in all cases.


There were significant differences in chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta) levels of BAL fluid between patients with PF and healthy controls (p<0.0006). MCP-1 and MIP-1 alpha levels in BAL fluid correlate only with the percentage and the absolute number lymphocytes of the BAL fluid in patients with PF due to SM gas inhalation (p=0.0006/p=0.03; p=0.04/p=0.02; respectively). The BAL fluid level of MIP-alpha in SM gas-induced PF was significantly correlated with the number of lymphocytes (r=-0.56, p=0.01), neutrophils (r=-0.50, p=0.03) and eosinophils (r=-0.49, p=0.03). A significant negative correlation was observed between the percentage of Dlco and MCP-1 and MIP-1 alpha levels in BAL fluid in patients with PF (r=-0.65, p=0.003; r=-0.48, p=0.04; respectively).


Neutrophils alveolitis, presence of eosinophils, and higher concentrations of interleukin MCP-1, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta in BAL fluid are associated with the development of fibrosis in SM victims.

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