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Immunol Lett. 2007 Oct 15;112(2):82-91. Epub 2007 Aug 1.

Intracellular JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB regulate IL-25 induced release of cytokines and chemokines from costimulated T helper lymphocytes.

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Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, China.


Novel Th2 cytokine IL-25 has been shown to be elevated in allergic inflammation. We investigated the intracellular mechanisms regulating IL-25-induced Th2 cytokines and chemokines from human Th lymphocytes upon costimulation by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. Cytokines, chemokines, and phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase were analyzed by bead-based array using flow cytometry. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and total MAPK were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and Western blot, respectively. IL-25 could synergistically induce the release of Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, inflammatory cytokine IL-6, Th1 related chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, and chemokine CCL5 from anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies costimulated Th cells, especially memory Th cells. Costimulation could also upregulate the cell surface expression of IL-25 receptor on Th cells. Costimulation with or without IL-25 treatment could activate JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB. The upregulation of costimulation-induced IL-25 receptors and release of cytokines and chemokines from IL-25 treated costimulated Th cells were differentially regulated by intracellular JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB activity. Therefore, the optimal activation of Th cells by IL-25 for the release of Th2 cytokines and chemokines requires the CD3 and CD28 mediated costimulation of Th cells via the upregulation of IL-25 receptors and the activation of intracellular signaling pathways. This mechanistic study shows that IL-25 and CD28 costimulation can play pathophysiological roles by inducing inflammation and hyperresponsiveness through the production of both Th2 cytokines and chemokines from memory Th cells.

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