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J Biol Chem. 2007 Oct 19;282(42):30357-62. Epub 2007 Aug 22.

ATR pathway is the primary pathway for activating G2/M checkpoint induction after re-replication.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.


DNA replication is tightly controlled to ensure accurate chromosome duplication and segregation in each cell cycle. Inactivation of Geminin, an inhibitor of origin licensing, leads to re-replication in human tumor cells within the same cell cycle and triggers a G(2)/M checkpoint. We find that the primary pathway to signal that re-replication has been detected is the ATR kinase and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) clamp complex together with Rad17-RFC clamp loader. ATM kinase and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex do not appear to play significant roles in the checkpoint. Chk1 activation occurs at early stages, whereas Chk2 activation occurs much later. Overall we conclude that ATR/Chk1 pathway is activated at an early time point after the loss of Geminin and contributes to checkpoint arrest essential for the accumulation of re-replicated cells, whereas activation of the ATM/Chk2 pathway is a by-product of DNA re-replication at a later period.

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