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Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2007 Sep;101(6):511-7.

First detection and sequence analysis of the bla-CTX-M-15 gene in Lebanese isolates of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Shigella sonnei.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Riad El Solh Street, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon.


The emergence in Shigella species of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) that impart resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is a growing concern world-wide. So far, however, ESBL-producing Shigella have only been reported seven times, albeit from seven different countries. In Lebanon, three ESBL-producing clinical isolates of S. sonnei were recovered from 30 cases of shigellosis diagnosed between July 2004 and October 2005. All three were found to be resistant to amoxycillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, gentamicin, and kanamycin. Each harboured the bla-CTX-M gene, and the results of sequence analysis indicated this to be of the bla-CTX-M-15 type and encoded on a 70-kb plasmid, flanked by an insertion element (ISEcp1). The bla-TEM-1 gene was also detected on the chromosomes of two of the ESBL-producing isolates. Class-2 integrons containing dhfr1, aadA1 and sat1 genes were detected on the chromosomes of all three isolates but not on the plasmids. Fluoroquinolone-modifying factors [QnrA, QnrB, QnrS or AAC(6')-Ib-cr] were not detected. The results of RAPD analysis, combined with data on antimicrobial susceptibility, indicated that each isolate was unique. In conclusion, the emergence of ESBL-producing isolates of S. sonnei has been demonstrated for the first time in Lebanon. The resistance of these isolates to third-generation cephalosporins was mediated by the CTX-M-15 enzyme, which was plasmid-encoded.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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