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FEBS J. 2007 Sep;274(18):4863-76. Epub 2007 Aug 21.

Comprehensive interaction of dicalcin with annexins in frog olfactory and respiratory cilia.

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Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Japan.


Dicalcin (renamed from p26olf) is a dimer form of S100 proteins found in frog olfactory epithelium. S100 proteins form a group of EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins, and are known to interact with many kinds of target protein to modify their activities. To determine the role of dicalcin in the olfactory epithelium, we identified its binding proteins. Several proteins in frog olfactory epithelium were found to bind to dicalcin in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Among them, 38 kDa and 35 kDa proteins were most abundant. Our analysis showed that these were a mixture of annexin A1, annexin A2 and annexin A5. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that dicalcin and all of these three subtypes of annexin colocalize in the olfactory cilia. Dicalcin was found to be present in a quantity almost sufficient to bind all of these annexins. Colocalization of dicalcin and the three subtypes of annexin was also observed in the frog respiratory cilia. Dicalcin facilitated Ca(2+)-dependent liposome aggregation caused by annexin A1 or annexin A2, and this facilitation was additive when both annexin A1 and annexin A2 were present. In this facilitation effect, the effective Ca(2+) concentrations were different between annexin A1 and annexin A2, and therefore the dicalcin-annexin system in frog olfactory and respiratory cilia can cover a wide range of Ca(2+) concentrations. These results suggested that this system is associated with abnormal increases in the Ca(2+) concentration in the olfactory and other motile cilia.

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