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Asian J Androl. 2007 Sep;9(5):705-10.

Urine versus brushed samples in human papillomavirus screening: study in both genders.

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Department of Urology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. K.D'



To investigate whether urine is a good medium for screening and whether there is a correlation between the amount of extracted DNA and human papillomavirus (HPV)-positivity.


In the present study, 30 first-voided urine (FVU) specimens and 20 urethroglandular swabs using cervex-brushes from male partners of HPV-positive patients, and 31 FVU specimens and 100 liquid-based cervix cytology leftovers sampled with cervix-brushes from HPV-positive women were examined for the presence of beta-globin. Oncogenic HPV were detected using type-specific PCR.


beta-globin was found in all the brushed samples, whereas it was found in only 68.9% of the FVU specimens. HPV-PCR was positive in 60.0% of the male brushes, in 29% of the female brushes and in 0% of the male FVU specimens. DNA concentration was, respectively, 0.9998 ng/microL, 37.0598 ng/microL and 0.0207 ng/microL.


Urine is not a good tool for HPV detection, probably because the low DNA concentration reflects a low amount of collected cells. beta-globin is measurable in FVU by real time quantitative PCR, but the DNA concentration is lower compared to brush sampling for both genders. beta-globin-positivity of urethral and cervical swabs is 100%, showing a higher mean concentration of DNA, leading to a higher detection rate of HPV. This is the first article linking DNA-concentration to the presence of HPV.

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