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J Gastrointest Surg. 2007 Nov;11(11):1410-5; discussion 1415-6. Epub 2007 Aug 21.

High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, H3680F, Stanford, CA 94305-5655, USA.


Anal dysplasia (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, LSIL; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSIL) is a challenging disease for the surgeon. We reviewed 42 patients that underwent high-resolution anoscopy (HRA)-targeted surgical therapy of anal dysplasia in the past 10 years. Patients were followed up in the Anal Neoplasia Clinic with physical examination, cytology, HRA, and biopsy if indicated. Patients with disease amenable to local therapy were treated with office-based HRA-directed therapies. There were 30 men (mean age 39 years, range 21-63) and 12 women (mean age 50 years, range 31-71) included in the study. HSIL was present in 33, with four undergoing planned staged treatment due to circumferential disease. HSIL recurred in 45%, and most were re-treated successfully in-office. Progression to HSIL was seen in one patient with LSIL and to squamous cell carcinoma in one patient with HSIL despite therapy. No patients with LSIL had dysplasia at last follow-up. Minor complications occurred in three patients. HRA-targeted surgical therapy coupled with surveillance and re-treatment with office-based therapies offered an effective method in controlling anal dysplasia in the immunocompetent patient. Morbidity is minimal, and our progression to cancer rate is low (2.4%).

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