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Planta. 2007 Dec;227(1):177-87. Epub 2007 Aug 18.

Conserved relationship between FtsZ and peptidoglycan in the cyanelles of Cyanophora paradoxa similar to that in bacterial cell division.

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Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bldg FSB-601, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.


Cyanelles of the biflagellate protist Cyanophora paradoxa have retained the peptidoglycan layer, which is critical for division, as indicated by the inhibitory effects of beta-lactam antibiotics. An FtsZ ring is formed at the division site during cyanelle division. We used immunofluorescence microscopy to observe the process of FtsZ ring formation, which is expected to lead cyanelle division, and demonstrated that an FtsZ arc and a split FtsZ ring emerge during the early and late stages of cyanelle division, respectively. We used an anti-FtsZ antibody to observe cyanelle FtsZ rings. We observed bright, ring-shaped fluorescence of FtsZ in cyanelles. Cyanelles were kidney-shaped shortly after division. Fluorescence indicated that FtsZ did not surround the division plane at an early stage of division, but rather formed an FtsZ arc localized at the constriction site. The constriction spread around the cyanelle, which gradually became dumbbell shaped. After the envelope's invagination, the ring split parallel to the cyanelle division plane without disappearing. Treatment of C. paradoxa cells with ampicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, resulted in spherical cyanelles with an FtsZ arc or ring on the division plane. Transmission electron microscopy of the ampicillin-treated cyanelle envelope membrane revealed that the surface was not smooth. Thus, the inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis by ampicillin causes the inhibition of septum formation and a marked delay in constriction development. The formation of the FtsZ arc and FtsZ ring is the earliest sign of cyanelle division, followed by constriction and septum formation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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