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Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Nov;77(1):1-12. Epub 2007 Aug 18.

Recent advances using green and red fluorescent protein variants.

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  • 1Institut für Zellbiologie (ABI), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Schillerstrasse 42, Munich, Germany.


Fluorescent proteins have proven to be excellent tools for live-cell imaging. In addition to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants, recent progress has led to the development of monomeric red fluorescent proteins (mRFPs) that show improved properties with respect to maturation, brightness, and the monomeric state. This review considers green and red spectral variants, their paired use for live-cell imaging in vivo, in vitro, and in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies, in addition to other recent "two-color" advances including photoswitching and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). It will be seen that green and red fluorescent proteins now exist with nearly ideal properties for dual-color microscopy and FRET.

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