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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Jul 1;45 Suppl 2:S57-65; discussion S66-7.

Hepatitis B in the HIV-coinfected patient.

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Service d'Hépato-Gastro-Entérologie, Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.


HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection share transmission patterns and risk factors; therefore, it is not surprising that the prevalence of chronic HBV infection is elevated among HIV-infected persons. HBV does not significantly affect the course of HIV disease, but HIV does alter the course of HBV. HIV-infected persons are less likely to clear acute HBV infection spontaneously, and HIV/HBV-coinfected persons face a higher risk of liver-related death than those monoinfected with either virus. The immune restoration associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can improve control of HBV replication but can also lead to increased immune-mediated liver injury. On balance, use of HAART before severe immunosuppression develops may be beneficial. Still, the complexity of HBV, HIV, and HAART interactions must be evaluated for each individual. There is a dearth of high-quality evidence about management of coinfected patients. A recent consensus conference has issued recommendations. HBV DNA thresholds for starting anti-HBV therapy are the same in coinfected and HBV-monoinfected patients. Continuing drugs with anti-HBV activity is important, because stopping such therapy has been associated with HBV reactivation. Development of resistance is a risk with the long-term maintenance therapy required in most patients.

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