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Am J Nephrol. 2007;27(5):522-9. Epub 2007 Aug 16.

ACE inhibitor-based, directly observed therapy for hypertension in hemodialysis patients.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Renal Division, Chromalloy American Kidney Center and Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 61110, USA.



Hypertension is present in nearly 80% of dialysis patients yet adequately controlled in less than half. We designed a stepped antihypertensive regimen using long-acting antihypertensives (trandolapril, atenolol and amlodipine) administered thrice a week (TIW) after each hemodialysis, and compared blood pressure (BP) control, medication cost and pill burden to each patient's prior daily antihypertensive prescriptions.


Patients were continued on their daily medications, pre-dialysis sitting BP was measured and a 44-hour interdialytic ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) was obtained. Then, their medications were stopped and replaced with trandolapril (2 mg TIW). Atenolol and/or amlodipine were also given TIW if the patients had any member of these classes of drugs as part of their daily regimen. Medications were titrated every 2 weeks to achieve a pre-dialysis mean arterial pressure (MAP) of <107 mm Hg. After 2 consecutive weeks with a pre-dialysis MAP of <107 mm Hg, a second 44-hour ABPM was obtained.


Ten patients completed the study. A persistent MAP of <107 was maintained in all 10 patients after conversion to TIW dosing. The systolic BP decreased from 122.2 +/- 7.1 to 116.4 +/- 11.6, and the diastolic BP decreased from 75.3 +/- 10.4 to 70.4 +/- 11.4 mm Hg. Pill burden and cost of medications were also significantly less.


This pilot study found that ACE inhibitor-based, directly observed TIW therapy to be effective in hemodialysis patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Larger trials of directly observed therapy for hypertension in dialysis patients are warranted.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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