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Metabolism. 2007 Sep;56(9):1179-86.

Efficacy and safety of allopurinol in patients with hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency.

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Division of Clinical Biochemistry, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.


Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency is a genetic disease of purine metabolism resulting in uric acid overproduction. Allopurinol, which inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase and reduces uric acid synthesis, is widely used for the treatment of gout and uric acid overproduction. The aim of the study was to analyze the long-term efficacy and safety of allopurinol in patients with HPRT deficiency. Nineteen patients (13 with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and 6 with partial HPRT deficiency) were treated with allopurinol (mean dose, 6.4 mg/kg body weight per day; range, 3.7-9.7 mg/kg body weight per day) and followed up for at least 12 months (mean follow-up, 7.6 years). The efficacy of allopurinol was evaluated by serial measurement of purine metabolic parameters and renal function as well as by clinical manifestations. Safety was assessed by recording adverse events. Treatment with allopurinol normalized serum urate level in all patients and resulted in a mean reduction in serum urate of 47%. Allopurinol treatment was associated with a mean 74% reduction in urinary uric acid-to-creatinine ratio. In contrast, allopurinol treatment increased mean hypoxanthine and xanthine urinary excretion rates 5.4- and 9.5-fold, respectively, compared with baseline levels. The decrease in uric acid excretion in complete and partial HPRT-deficient patients was not accompanied by a stoichiometric substitution of hypoxanthine and xanthine excretion rates. Allopurinol-related biochemical changes were similar in patients with either complete or partial HPRT deficiency. Renal function remained stable or improved with treatment. Three patients had urolithiasis during allopurinol treatment. In 2 patients, xanthine stones were documented and they required allopurinol dose adjustments aimed at reducing excessive oxypurine excretion rates. No allopurinol hypersensitivity reactions occurred. Neurologic manifestations were not influenced by allopurinol therapy. In conclusion, allopurinol is efficacious and generally safe for the treatment of uric acid overproduction in patients with HPRT deficiencies. Xanthine lithiasis, developing as a consequence of allopurinol therapy, should be preventable by adjustment of allopurinol dose.

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